Project Information Document
Project Name: Bangladesh-Air Quality Management Project (AQMP)
Region: South Asia
Project ID: BDPE57833
Borrower: Government of Bangladesh (GOB)
Implementing Agencies: Ministry of Environment and Forestry
Department of Environment
Contact Mr. A.R. Khan, Director General
E-16 Agargaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh,
Tel (880-2) 911-2490
Fax (880-2) 911-8682
Date this PID Prepared: February 18, 1999
Project Appraisal Date: October 1998
Projected Board Approval: February 1999
1. The objective of this Learning and Innovation Loan (LIL) is to learn about options and develop components of urban air quality management by means of pilot activities and institutional support, with the ultimate goal of reducing human exposure to vehicular air pollution in a cost-effective manner. The components are designed to promote learning, generate consistent and reliable data, develop institutional capacity for air quality management, test technical options for financial, environmental and social viability, and raise stakeholder awareness of the issues and options related to vehicular air pollution. The activities under this LIL focus primarily on Dhaka, with some components replicated in other cities.
Strategic Context and Sector Issues
2. Rapid vehicular growth in the metropolitan areas of Bangladesh in recent years has been accompanied by an associated increase in emissions of harmful pollutants. Public exposure to air pollution in Dhaka is estimated to cause 15,000 premature deaths and several million cases of sickness every year. The poor are particularly vulnerable to air pollution, due to above-average physical exposure to air pollution. Reducing urban air pollution and associated health impacts in Dhaka have been identified as development objectives. At present, there is little knowledge about the extent of the problem and essentially no air quality management system is place in Bangladesh today to tackle air pollution.
3. Air pollution is by its very nature a cross-sectoral issue, arising from the transport, energy, industry, commercial, and domestic sectors. A more traditional air quality management system, based on better information, would tackle the key sources simultaneously across all of these sectors. However, vehicles constitute the dominant source of air pollution in Dhaka: as there are no power stations, significant industrial sources of emissions, or nearby deserts to cause dust pollution (as in cities like Delhi).
4. The key strategic choice made in this project is to proceed with a LIL focusing on the transport sector in the absence of complete knowledge of air pollution sources from other sectors. It is argued that there is little risk to this sectoral focus, on the basis that: (a) the economic profile of Dhaka supports this strategic focus, and (b) the source assessment analysis undertaken under the project will ensure that the full range of important air pollution sources and control issues are better understood by the end of the project. Nevertheless, two hypotheses need to be tested during the course of this LIL, i.e., that: (a) the return on emissions pollution reduction measures in the transport sector is greater than in other sectors; and (b) the return on emissions reduction measures focused particularly on two kinds of vehicles: two-stroke three-wheelers and heavy-duty diesel vehicles: is greater than for other types of vehicles. The LIL is structured to fully address these cross-sectoral issues.
5. The project consists of two main components:
a. Vehicle Emissions Reduction (Enforcement, Standards and Control): This component will support the role of DOE to revise vehicle, fuel and lubricant standards; carry out vehicle spot-checking for emissions compliance; and promote pilot technologies for emissions reduction in two-stroke engine and heavy-duty diesel vehicles (e.g. lubricant requirement upgrade; regular maintenance; engine overhaul; load and age limitations). A simple in-use vehicle testing program will be established and launched in cooperation with other departments to identify and control grossly polluting vehicles. The road side tests will focus on gsmokeh from diesel and two stroke engines and carbon monoxide from gasoline vehicles.
b. Air Quality Monitoring: Air quality monitoring is an integral part of an environmental management strategy. The data collected are used in evaluating current trends in air pollution and assessing the benefits of control options. The current preliminary level of monitoring needs to be systematized and strengthened with quality control and assurance so that the data obtained can be used for developing air pollution control strategies. The data obtained will be made available to the public, and all stakeholders will be strongly encouraged to participate in finding solutions to controlling air pollution. This component will be undertaken in a phased manner to help ensure that the rate of equipment acquisition is the same as that at which the technical capacity necessary for its operation and maintenance is created. Laboratory facilities will be upgraded to support the program, and data management and quality assurance programs will be adopted.
Projects Preparation and Implementation
6. The agency responsible for preparation and implementation of this project is Ministry of Environment and Forest/Department of Environment (MOEF/DOE). They will establish a Project Implementation Unit (PIU) which will work on improving air pollution monitoring and subsequent data analysis in close collaboration with the Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA), the Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC), the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), the Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), the Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institute (BSTI), NGOs and others. In addition, a Project Implementation Committee (PIC) of key stakeholders will be formed to facilitate project implementation and offer guidance. The DOE has drafted a project concept and implementation plans which will be submitted to the planning department for approvals.
7. The project cost is estimated at about $5.3 million. The financing plan is: IDA $4.4 million equivalent and Government of Bangladesh US$ 0.9 million equivalent.
Key Performance Indicators
8. Success of the LIL will be defined in terms of the extent to which knowledge has been gained and various components of the air quality management system have been put in place. Indicators of success by the end of the three-year project period are:
9. No major negative environmental impacts are expected as a result of this project. This is an environmental project designed to reduce air pollution in urban areas in Bangladesh. It involves primarily capacity building and no major construction activities are anticipated. Hence, the environmental category assignment for this project is C. Contact Point: The InfoShop
The World Bank
1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Telephone No. (202)458 5454
Fax No. (202) 522 1500
Task Manager: Jitendra (Jitu) Shah
Telephone: 202 458 1598
Fax: 202 522 1664
Note: This is information on an evolving project. Certain activities and/or components may not be included in the final project.
Processed by the InfoShop week ending February 19, 1999.