Arsenic Concentration of Rice in Bangladesh
 
Hiromi HIRONAKA 1・Sk.Akhtar Ahmad2
 
Technical Cooperation on Arsenic mitigation programme in Bangladesh
1) Arsenic Concentration of Rice in Bangladesh
 
Hiromi HIRONAKA , Sk.Akhtar Ahmad
 
Summary
 
The cooperation request suits from JICA to Fukuoka-shi to the measure against arsenic pollution of the Bangladesh country. The total arsenic concentration of rice in Bangladesh produced on 1998 winter to 1999 spring was measured.
The arsenic concentration of rice produced in pollution area is 2 to 3 times the non-polluting district.
The value is of the same grade (0.1 to 0.3 ppm) mostly with rice made in Japan.
It was considered that the risk of chronic arsenic poisoning by the arsenic ingestion from rice to be low.

 
Key Words : arsenic, U.S. Rice, Bangladesh, Fukuoka-shi Fukuoka City
 
 
 
I. Preface
 
In Bangladesh, "Green Revolution" which uses underground water as water for irrigation advanced 20 years before.
The quantity of production of rice increased by leaps and bounds.
Arsenic came to be contained in drink water by change of the oxidization or reduction situation of a ground sewer layer.
The chronic arsenic poisoning by tubewell water has been the national problem.
In the arsenic pollution area, the uneasiness said whether the arsenic concentration of agricultural products is high has surfaced.
Mr. Sk.Akhtar Ahmad visited Fukuoka City Institute for Hygiene and Environment as a study member of JICA for 16 days of 1999/11/15-11/30.

30 sample of rice made-in-Japan was measured as analysis training study. 67 samples which Dr.Sk.Akhtar Ahmad carried was measured as the non-polluting district as control samples of Bangladesh and of arsenic pollution area


II Method
 
1. Sampling Method
1) 21 sample (cleaned rice) collected from the farmhouse of the Jessor prefecture Samta village which is a arsenic pollution ground .
2) 24 samples collected from the producer of the Rajhahi city circumference containing a arsenic pollution area (Threshed rice).
3) 12 samples collected from the kitchen and the market of Dakha and Rajhahi.

1 1 . Fukuoka City Institute of Hygine and Environmental, Chief Researcher, Trace analysis Section
2 National Institute Physics and Social Medicine, Bangladesh
4) 30 samples that circulates in Fukuoka city collected by annual Inspection by Food Inspector.
1)〜3);sample collected by Akhtar, 4);Collected by food inspector of Fukuoka City.
 
2. Method of Analysis
1. Threshed rice was made rice cleaning with the home rice-cleaning machine for 5 minutes.
5ml of conc. nitric acid and two boil stones are added, it heats at aluminium block heater 130℃ and digested by wet method.
Since it forming, about 1ml of nitric acid is added, and it removes from a block heater, and cools timely at the beginning.
If it stops forming, it will digested at 130℃ for 8 to 16 hours. If liquid is colouring, nitric acid will be added further small quantity and decomposition is continued.

If liquid becomes almost transparent, 1ml of sulphuric acid(conc.) will be added, and it heats several hours to 16 hour at 160 ℃.

It heats until liquid becomes transparent completely and white smoke arises, adding nitric acid a little if needed.
Once, it heats after cooling until white smoke arises again, in order to add 2ml of distilled water and to remove nitric acid completely.
The scalpel rise of the last sample is carried out with distilled water at 10ml, and it is taken as the sample of FIAS-AA.





1) Reagent
60-62% dark nitric-acid: detrimental metal analysis grade(wako)
95+% dark sulfuric-acid:detrimental metal analysis grade(wako)
arsenic Standard Liquid: As1000ppm (JCSS)
NaBH4:Hydrogenation boron sodium: reagent grade
35-37% HCl: Hydrochloric Acid: Arsenic analysis grade
 2)FIAS-AA analysis conditions
  Instrument :Perkin Elmer AAnalyst-100
        +FIAS-100
  HCL: As 193.7 nm, 2nm Width
  Carrier gas : Nitrogen
  Expansion : x2
   Recorder 500mv/ Fs
  Carrier A: 10% (V/V) HCl
  Carrier B: 0.5% NaBH4 in 0.05% NaOH



 
   Sample Rice 1.0g
    |<--- 5ml HNO3 conc.
   Digestion 130℃
    |<--- 1ml H2SO4 conc.
   Digestion 160℃
    |<--- 2ml H2O
   Digestion 160℃
  Fill up to 10ml (Sample for AA)
Scheme1. Flow Chart of As Analysis in Rice
 
III Result and Consideration
Arsenic concentration of rice produced in Bangladesh 1999
The analysis result of the total arsenic concentration of 21 rice samples of Samta produced which is a high-concentration arsenic pollution district was shown in Table-1.
The analysis result of the total arsenic concentration of 41 rice samples, such as the market of Rajhahi and Dacca, was shown in Table-2a and Table-2b as a contrast district of Bangladesh.
The result of arsenic analysis of 29 rice samples produced in Japan in 1998 and 1999 and one calfornia produced rice sample was shown in Table-3.
Those histograms were shown in Fig-1 to Fig-3.
One sample of Samta produced rice which is a arsenic pollution ground was comparatively as high as 0.94 ppm. The significant difference was not seen in an average of rice of the pollution ground and the rice made in Japan. The arsenic concentration of rice of the pollution ground was 2 to 2.5 times other local average value of Bangladesh.
In order to guess the form of arsenic in rice, two sample(SM-16 and SM-17) were digested with the 2N-chloride after cooked with water. Arsenic of only a soluble ingredient is measured, and residue was digested by nitric-acid-sulphuric-acid and total Arsenic were measured. This tries judgment to soluble arsenic (inorganic arsenic) of the form which is decomposed by stomach acid and absorbed within the stomach and intestines, and the form or organic arsenic discharged as stool.
40% - 50% of the total arsenic was arsenic of soluble.
 
IV Conclusion

The arsenic concentration of rice produced in polluted area of Bangladesh was about 0.3 2 to 3 times as much as a non-polluting district. There was no difference As concentration of rice observed between produced in Japan and in polluted area of Bangladesh. The arsenic concentration of rice of Bangladesh is not considered to be the concentration out of which influence comes healthily.
Although some rice contains High Arsenic as 1.0ppm, rice of these pollution district needs to be blended and needs to lower arsenic concentration. Or a high-concentration producer's rice is discriminated and it is thought that it needs to remove from circulation.

Table-1 . Arsenic concentration of Rice produced in Samta,Jessor, Bangladesh

No.
As
ppm
Producer Name
Type
Harvested
Area
THANA-Dist.
DTW Use
SM01
SM02
SM03
SM04
SM05
SM06
SM07
SM08
SM09
SM10
SM11
SM12
SM13
SM14
SM15
SM16
SM17
SM18
SM19
SM20
SM21
0.16
0.34
0.11
0.23
0.22
0.18
0.36
0.27
0.27
0.19
0.24
0.21
0.22
0.32
0.18
0.40
0.21
0.31
0.21
0.30
0.94
Faruk Hassan
Babur Ali
GolamMostofa
Sirajul Islam
Fazlul Karim
Fazlul Karim
Bazrul Rahma
Bazrul Rahma
Md.Azizul Huq
Md.Azizul Huq
Lutfur Rahma
Lutfur Rahma
Akbar Ali
Md.Sar Ali
Md.Solaiman
Faruk Hassan
Tutul Mondol
Md.Ayubu Ali
Md.Aynal Haqu
Daud Gazi
Wazed Ali
Amon
IRRI
IRRI
IRRI
Amon
IRRI
Amon
IRRI
IRRI
Amon
Amon
IRRI
IRRI
IRRI
IRRI
IRRI
IRRI
IRRI
IRRI
Amon
IRRI
Oct.99
April 99
April 99
April 99
Nov. 98
April 99
Oct.99
April 99
April 99
Oct.99
Oct.99
April 99
April 99
April 99
April 99
May 99
April 99
April 99
April 99
Dec. 98
April 99
Northwest
Northwest
Northwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
South
South
South
South
Southwest
South
West
South
South
Northwest
North
South
South
Northwest
Samta bazar
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
SamtaJessor
N/A
E
Unknown
Unknown
N/A
F
N/A
G
F
N/A
N/A
F
A
H
F
A
C or D
Unknown
F?
N/A
N/A

Table-2 a. Arsenic concentration of Rice produced in Rajshahi Bangladesh(1999)

No.
As
ppm
Name of Farmer
Rice
Village Postoffice Thana Dist
RS01
RS02
RS03
RS04
RS05
RS06
RS07
RS08
RS09
RS10
RS11
RS12
RS13
RS14
RS15
RS16
RS17
RS18
RS19
RS20
RS21
RS22
RS23
RS24
0.13
0.08
0.10
0.03
0.12
0.11
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.10
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.34
0.06
0.14
0.10
0.06
0.05
Abdul jalil
Aminul Islan
Gurudas
Md Shofikul Islam
Nilatan
Bablu Mija
Ohab Miah
Ohab Miah
GobindaChandraSarker
Md.Harum Miah
Aauu Miah
Shar Afroz Alam
Rafiqul Alam
Sunil Chandra
Matab Ali
Md NazrulIslam Kharn
Shobhan Sharkar
Hazi Sakwat Hossain
Tafsir Uddin
Halimuzzaman Khan
Hasan Ali Toroxxx
Khalikur Rahman
Mohammad Ali
Rafiqul Islam
BR11
BR11
BR11
Puragini
Paijam
BR11
BR11
BR11
BR11
BR11
BR11
BR11
BR11
Paijam
Aman
Paijam
BR11
Binni
Chaina
Biroi
Paijam
BR11
Chapali
Kalizira
Teherpur Gopigram Sadullapur Gaibandha
Dashmowas Jahingar Pironj Rangpur
Turakamal Sandiapur Sadullapur Gaibandha
Shaigarigobindopur Dhaperhart Sadullapur
Dulamitipur Panbazar Pironj Rangpur
Junidpur Sandiapur Sadullapur Gaibandha
Baradaudpur Gopigram Sadullapur Gaibandha
Baradaudpur Gopigram Sadullapur Gaibandha
RowshanpurGopigram Pironj Rangpur
Mohenshapur Gagarbazar Sadullapur Gaibandha
Gobarkutubpur Panbazar Pironj Rangpur
Mokimpur Fathapur-Laldhigi Pironj Rangpur
Monoharpur Jamalpur Sadullahpur Gaibanda
Amodpur Jahingirabad Pirgonji Rangpur
DhanMojompur Ghatail Tangaik Ghatail Tangail
Jhakai Chaithatta Chatail Tangail
Dampara Modhupur Modhupur Tangail
Chaithatta Chaithatta Chatail Tangail
Chaithatta Chaithatta Chatail Tangail
Junkail Ghatail Tangaik Ghatail Tangail
Rassulpu Chaithatta Chatail Tangail
Kharghata Shonkhola Ghatail Tangail
Chaithatta Chaithatta Chatail Tangail
Panzanal Porabari Nagbari Ghatail Tangail



Table-2b. Arsenic concentration of Merket Rice in Rajshahi,Dhaka,Bangladesh(1999)

No. As ppm Sample name Rice note Market
HT01
HT02
HT03
HT04
HT05
HT06
HT07
HT08
HT09
HT10
HT11
HT12
HT13
HT14
HT15
HT16
HT17
0.09
0.03
0.05
0.16
0.06
0.16
0.11
0.12
0.09
0.28
0.13
0.15
0.05
0.10
0.05
0.12
0.19
motel Rajatan
Hotel Abokasi
No01 Hotel Abokashi
No01A Akhra Kitchin
No02A Akthar house
No02B Akthar Kitchin
No02 Ralans Hamindarl
No03 pavjam
No04 katari
No05 Market rice
No06 pari
No07 india
No08 RARUNI
No09 ratni
No10 Kalo
Pacc-kitcin
Dhinighura
long grain
long grain
small grain
white middle
long grain
small white
long grain
long grain
china?
long grain
Middle grain
Middle grain
Small White
long grain
Short white
long grain
long grain
white
1999/04/18
Dhaka
long grain
long grain
small white
Prof.Hamidur
Rajahi
rashahi
long brwn
Rajhahi
from india
Rajhahi
rashahi
Rajhaahi K
Hotel
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Dhaka
Dhaka
Dhaka
Dhaka
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi



Table-3 . Arsenic concentration of Rice produced in JAPAN (1988-99 )


No.

As(ppm)

Sampling

Spices

Pref. / province
J98-E1
J98-E2
J98-E3
J98-E4
J98-E5
J98-H1
J98-H2
J98-H3
J98-H4
J98-H5
J98-S1
J98-S2
J98-T1
J99-E1
J99-E2
J99-E3
J99-E4
J99-E5
J99-E6
J99-H1
J99-H2
J99-H3
J99-H4
J99-H5
J99-J1
J99-J2
J99-M1
J99-M2
J99-M3
J99-M4
0.12
0.16
0.17
0.17
0.10
0.15
0.18
0.27
0.12
0.07
0.14
0.13
0.32
0.25
0.31
0.20
0.16
0.21
0.15
0.26
0.20
0.21
0.19
0.23
0.18
0.26
0.08
0.14
0.11
0.19
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/07
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
1999/11
hitomebore
hitomebore
hohoemi
yumetukusi
akitakomachi
hohoemi
hinohikari
hinohikari
kirara397
kosihikari
hinohikari
Shonaimai-haenuki
aigamo-genmai
hitomebore
kosihikari
akitakomachi
yumetsukusi
akitakomachi
hitomebore
akitakomachi-2nd
kosihikari-2nd
koshihikari-1st
kosihikari-2nd
yumetsukusi-1st
akitakomachigenmai
yumetsukusi
akitakomachi
hitomebore
calfornia
neo-genmai
akita
iwate
fukuoka
fukuoka
akita
fukuoka
kagosima
yamaguchi
hokkaido
kumamoto
fukuoka
yamagata
kumamoto
miyagi
shimane
akita
fukuoka
akita
miyagi
akita
niigata
toyama
shimane
fukuoka
akita
fukuoka
akita
miyagi
USA
chiba
honsho-si
ichinoseki-si
yame hosino-mura
asakura
yamamoto-gun
kuroki
isa
kikukawa
kitaryuu
aso
fukuokacity motooka
tsuruoka city
kuma-gun
tunoda-si
izumo
oogata-mura
tagawa
yamamotogun81machi
furukawa
senhoku-gun
kashiwazaki
toyama-si
iishi gun kakeai-cho
kaho
akita
buzen-si
akita
N/A
calfornia
nodashi
MO-1
MO-2
MO-3
0.08
0.05
0.04
RS01-Abdull Jalil
RS12-br11
RS22-Khalikur Rahman
shell
shell
shell
Rajhahi
Rajhahi
Rajhahi